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Abstract

Black holes are one of the most astonishing predictions of Einstein's general relativity. Yet at the same time they are remarkably simple objects, being described by (at most) three parameters. One of the defining features of a black hole is that of the event horizon; the mathematical boundary inside of which not even light can overcome the pull of gravity. The inability for anything to escape beyond the horizon lead researchers in the 1970's to the equilibrium thermodynamic description of black hole mechanics, and ultimately to the discovery of Hawking radiation. Although black holes are three-dimensional objects, their equilibrium thermodynamic properties, temperature and entropy, are characterized by the two-dimensional surface formed by the horizon; the so-called Holographic principle.

Although a large-body of work is devoted to these equilibrium properties, very little has been said about the non-equilibrium thermodynamic properties of black holes, namely the transport of energy and entropy via Hawking radiation. In this colloquial talk, we will see that the transport properties of Hawking radiation from a black hole can be viewed as a one-dimensional (1D) Landauer transport process; a theory first applied for the quantum description of electron conductance in circuits. I will discuss how the conformal symmetry in the near-horizon region of a black hole leads to a (1+1)- dimensional spacetime where the emission of radiation is confined to a single spatial dimension. After a review of Landauer transport, we will apply this model, and the particle statistics independence of the energy and entropy fluxes in 1D, to the study of a black hole in vacuum, as well as one near thermal- equilibrium with its environment. As an application, I will show that the net entropy produced by Hawking radiation is 50% larger than a three-dimensional thermal body obeying the Stefan-Boltzmann law.